Mumbai grew from the 1860s through the 1890s largely because of the international cotton trade, which went from exporting cotton to textile manufacturing mills dotting the city.
"People like me who came to England in the 1950s have been there for centuries," writes the Jamaican cultural theorist Stuart Hall, "symbolically we have been there for centuries. I was coming home.
From an unusual lithographic series, a marvelous rendition of a type still very active throughout the subcontinent and restaurants abroad.
[Original caption] Indian Workers in Silver and Gold. Unaided by mechanical invention, the handwork of these craftsmen is as near perfection as is possible.
Mela Ram was a photographer who might have warmly welcomed the advent of the real-photograph as a way for his art to take precedence over the vagaries of publishing in collotype or halftone using hand-tinted color to enhance images (there are few
[Original caption] A Malingerer. The picture shows a bullock fallen on the road. The coolies in attendance, believing the animal to be a malingerer, would coerce him into activity by throwing red pepper into his eyes. [end]
The word "mali" apparently comes from the Sanskrit "mala" or garland via Hindi. Malis seem to be generally shown crouching on postcards.
[Verso, handwritten] "Upper Burma, May 8/18 My dear Annie, I am pleased to hear from Mother that you got some
[Original caption] A Native Bullock Cart, Northern India. This most popular means of conveyance throughout India is the bullock cart.